What Exactly Are Hallux Valgus?

posted on 09 Jun 2015 12:11 by wilhelminamcmikle
Overview
Bunions Hard Skin A bunion is an unnatural, bony hump that forms at the base of the big toe where it attaches to the foot. Often, the big toe deviates toward the other toes. When this occurs, the base of the big toe pushes outward on the first metatarsal bone, which is the bone directly behind the big toe, forming a bunion. If this happens on the little toe and fifth metatarsal, it's called a bunionette. Because a bunion occurs at a joint, where the toe bends in normal walking, your entire body weight rests on the bunion at each step. Bunions can be extremely painful. They're also vulnerable to excess pressure and friction from shoes and can lead to the development of calluses.

Causes
Bunions most commonly affect women. Some studies report that bunion symptoms occur nearly 10 times more frequently in women. It has been suggested that tight-fitting shoes, especially high-heel and narrow-toed shoes, might increase the risk for bunion formation. Tight footwear certainly is a factor in precipitating the pain and swelling of bunions. Complaints of bunions are reported to be more prevalent in people who wear shoes than in barefoot people. Other risk factors for the development of bunions include abnormal formation of the bones of the foot at birth (congenital) and arthritic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. In some cases, repetitive stresses to the foot can lead to bunion formation. Bunions are common in ballet dancers.

Symptoms
Many people with bunions suffer from discomfort and pain from the constant irritation, rubbing, and friction of the enlargement against shoes. The skin over the toe becomes red and tender. Because this joint flexes with every step, the bigger the bunion gets, the more it hurts to walk. Over time, bursitis or arthritis may set in, the skin on the bottom of the foot may become thicker, and everyday walking may become difficult-all contributing to chronic bunion pain.

Diagnosis
A doctor can very often diagnose a bunion by looking at it. A foot x-ray can show an abnormal angle between the big toe and the foot. In some cases, arthritis may also be seen.

Non Surgical Treatment
Because they are bone deformities, bunions do not resolve by themselves. The goal for bunion treatment is twofold: first, to relieve the pressure and pain caused by irritations, and second to stop any progressive growth of the enlargement. Commonly used methods for reducing pressure and pain caused by bunions include the use of protective padding, often made from felt material, to eliminate the friction against shoes and help alleviate inflammation and skin problems. Removal of corns and calluses on the foot. Changing to carefully fitted footwear designed to accommodate the bunion and not contribute toward its growth. Orthotic devices, both over-the-counter and custom made-to help stabilize the joint and place the foot in the correct position for walking and standing. Exercises to maintain joint mobility and prevent stiffness or arthritis. Splints for nighttime wear to help the toes and joint align properly. This is often recommended for adolescents with bunions, because their bone development may still be adaptable. Bunions

Surgical Treatment
Anyone who experiences symptoms from bunions should see a podiatrist for treatment. But you may benefit from surgery if you have any of the following. Severe foot pain that limits your everyday activities, including walking and wearing comfortable shoes. You may find it hard to walk more than a few blocks (even in athletic shoes) without significant pain. Chronic big toe inflammation and swelling that doesn?t improve with rest or medications. Toe deformity, a drifting of your big toe toward the small toes. Toe stiffness, inability to bend and straighten your toes. Failure to obtain pain relief from anti-inflammatory drugs. Failure to substantially improve with other treatments such as a change in shoes and anti-inflammatory medications.

Prevention
Shop for shoes that possess a removable liner, or insole, and stand on the liner after you have removed it from your shoe. This is an effective method to see if your shoe is wide enough in the forefoot to accommodate your bunion. If your bunion and forefoot are wider than the insole, your shoe will squeeze and constrict your bunion and create the symptoms that define this health problem. The insole should also be wide enough to fully accommodate your big toe when it points outward, away from your other toes.
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